– Raw materials are characterized by a relatively large content of the useful component – 17% in siderite ores to 53-55% in magnetite iron ore. The share of rich ores accounts for almost a fifth of industrial reserves, which are used, as a rule, without enrichment. Approximately 2/3 of the ore requires enrichment with simple and 18% – a sophisticated method of enrichment;
– Variety of raw materials in the species ratio (magnetite, sulphide, oxidized, etc.), which makes it possible to use a variety of technology and produce a metal with a variety of properties;
– Various mining conditions (both mine and open, which account for up to 80% of all raw materials mined in ferrous metallurgy);
– Use of ores that are complex in composition (phosphorous, vanadium, titanomagnetite, chromium, etc.). At the same time, more than two-thirds make magnetite, which facilitates the possibility of enrichment.
The most important problem of raw materials base of ferrous metallurgy is its remoteness from the consumer. Thus, in the eastern regions of Russia, most of the fuel and energy resources and raw materials for the metallurgical complex are concentrated, and their main consumption is in the European part of Russia, which creates problems associated with large transport costs for the transportation of fuel and raw materials.
The location of full-cycle ferrous metallurgy enterprises depends on raw materials and fuel, which account for the majority of the costs of smelting pig iron, of which about half are for coke production and 35-40% for iron ore.
Currently, in connection with the use of poorer iron ores that require enrichment, construction sites are located in the areas of mining of iron ore. However, it is often necessary to transport enriched iron ore and coking coal for many hundreds and even thousands of kilometers from their mining sites to metallurgical enterprises located far from raw and fuel bases.
Thus, there are three options for locating ferrous metallurgy enterprises full cycle, gravitating either to sources of raw materials, or to sources of fuel, or located between them. These options determine the choice of the area and the site of construction, the availability of water supply sources and auxiliary materials.
Iron ore, steel rolling and pipe mills, specializing in the smelting of steel from pig iron, scrap metal, metallized pellets, the production of steel rolled products and pipes belong to large volumes of production. Steel smelting plants are created in large centers of engineering, where the requirements for metal Certain varieties are large enough. Steelmaking plants, on which high-quality steel is produced for various engineering industries (tooling, ball-bearing, stainless, structural, etc.) also belong to the metallurgical industry.
A new direction in the development of ferrous metallurgy is the creation of electrometallurgical combines, for the production of steel from metallized pellets obtained by the direct reduction of iron, where high technical and economic indicators are achieved in comparison with the traditional methods of metal production.
Enterprises of small metallurgy are located where there are machine-building plants. Smelting on them is made from imported metal, scrap metal, engineering waste.
In modern conditions, scientific and technological progress is having an increasing influence on the location of the metallurgical complex. The most complete impact of it as a factor in the location of production is manifested in the selection of areas for the new construction of metallurgical enterprises. With the development of scientific and technical progress, the raw material base of metallurgy is expanding as a result of improving the methods of searching for and developing ore deposits, applying new, most effective technological production schemes for the integrated processing of raw materials. Ultimately, the number of options for locating enterprises increases, and the location of their construction is redefined. Scientific and technological progress is an important factor not only rational distribution of production, but also intensification of the metallurgical complex.
A significant factor in the location of metallurgical enterprises is the transport factor. This is primarily due to cost savings in the transportation of raw materials, fuel, semi-finished products and finished products. The transport factor to a greater extent determines the location of enterprises for the production of concentrates, for servicing the main production of fuel. Their location is influenced by the provision of the territory (region) primarily by road, pipeline (fuel supply) and electronic transport (electricity supply). Equally important is the availability of railways in the region, as the products of the metallurgical complex are very large-tonnage.
The location of the metallurgical industry is affected by the development of infrastructure, namely, the provision of the area with industrial and social infrastructure facilities, the level of their development. As a rule, regions with a higher level of infrastructure development are the most attractive for the location of metallurgical enterprises, since there is no need to build new, additional power supply facilities, water supply, transport communications, social institutions.
At the present stage of the development of the national economy, the ecological situation in many regions of Russia has sharply escalated, which can not be overlooked in the process of locating metallurgical enterprises that exert a strong influence on the environment and nature management, being major polluters of the atmosphere, reservoirs, forests, lands. At modern volumes of manufacture this influence is rather appreciable. It is known that the higher the level of pollution of the environment, the greater the cost of preventing pollution. Further growth of these costs in the end can lead to loss of any production.
The share of ferrous metallurgy enterprises accounts for 20-25% of dust emissions, 25-30% of carbon monoxide, more than half of sulfur oxides from their total volume in the country. These emissions contain hydrogen sulphide, fluorides, hydrocarbons, manganese, vanadium, chromium compounds, etc. (more than 60 ingredients). Enterprises of ferrous metallurgy, in addition, take up to 20-25% of the water of its general consumption in industry and strongly pollute the surface waters.
Accounting for the environmental factor in the location of metallurgical production is an objective necessity for the development of society.
In the process of substantiating the location of metallurgical enterprises, it is necessary to take into account the entire complex of factors that contribute to the organization of more efficient production in a given territory, i.e. Their combined interaction on the production processes and the life of the population in the regions.