More than half a century, scientists have tried a huge number of different options and ways to extract and use solar energy. Expensive and inefficient technologies gave way to attractive and inexpensive developments that do not stop improving over the years. Let’s highlight the most common technology groups of the “solar” industry and try to identify the most attractive options for the consumer. First, it is necessary to determine the classification of “solar” technologies, separated by scientists into 4 groups: active, passive, direct (or “direct”) and indirect (indirect).
Active – together with the transducers mechanisms are involved, electric motors, pumps. Solar energy is used for heating water, lighting, ventilation.
Passive – differ from active by the absence in the contours of systems of any mechanisms, moving parts. A special feature of constructing passive solar structures for the organization of ventilation and heating systems is the selection of appropriate building materials for physical parameters, a specific layout of the room, and the placement of windows.
Direct or “direct” technologies include systems that convert solar energy in the course of one level or stage.
To the group of “indirect” technologies belong systems whose process of functioning includes multilevel transformations and transformations to obtain the required form of energy.
Based on the above classification of groups of solar energy technologies, it is possible to easily characterize the spheres of human activity, where the energy of the sun has become most widespread.