Jewelery diamonds. The main area of application of diamonds in value terms is cutting into diamonds.
Technical diamonds. Technical dark crystals with cracks and other defects, as well as various fragments, twins, splices, etc., from which it is impossible to produce a faceted crystal, belong to technical ones. Depending on the quality and purpose, technical diamonds can be conditionally divided into the following groups:
– diamonds undergoing processing to obtain grains of a certain geometric shape. These include diamonds intended for the manufacture of cutters, drills, tips, glass cutters, bearings, etc .;
– diamond crystals used in raw form in drill bits, diamond-metal pencils, etc .;
– Abrasive diamonds are mainly small crystals that have significant defects and are suitable only for grinding into powder.
Diamond powders are indispensable in the processing of sub-miniature parts, such as watch stones from ruby, bearings from topaz, beryl and sapphire, whose hardness is close to the hardness of corundum. Only the use of diamond powders ensures high purity of the processed microsurfaces, on which the accuracy of the micro components work in apparatuses and devices depends.
Tools from diamond powders. For cutting hard rocks, alloys and other hard materials, the industry produces diamond discs and various diamond saws. Are widespread abrasive diamond tools in the mandrel, which are widely used in the metalworking industry for dressing grinding wheels. Also used are diamond-metal pencils, which are pressed inserts from a diamond powder of a hard alloy.
Tools from single crystals of diamond. Cutters, needles, glass cutters, dies (lamellar diamonds with the finest holes drilled in them) and another tool are made from individual diamond crystals or parts thereof. Diamond needles are crystals of diamonds with a natural sharp tip or fragments with a sharp edge fixed in metal rods. Diamond needles are widely used for making taps on thread grinders. Diamond needles of conical shape with a spherical head are used in profilometers and profilographs, which serve to measure the smallest irregularities and surface cleanliness of various parts. Widely used diamonds for the manufacture of spinnerets in the production of wire from hard materials, especially small diameters for electronics.
Diamond rock cutting tool. The use of diamonds for the reinforcement of drill bits has increased the productivity of drilling rigs by a factor of 1.5-2 compared to non-diamond drilling.
Other areas of use of diamonds. Diamond is an excellent optical material for all kinds of ditches and windows, capable of withstanding high pressures and pressure of substances of any degree of aggressiveness and being simultaneously transparent over a wide range of wavelengths.
The diamond substrate of semiconductor circuits, providing their excellent insulation, diverts the heat several times faster than, for example, copper, significantly increasing the efficiency of the responsible parts of electronic circuits. The ability to count nuclear particles with diamonds in conditions of aggressive media and high mechanical loads, diamond is used in special counters.
The structure of consumption of technical diamonds by highly developed countries is as follows, (%):
– Grinding, sharpening of tools and parts of cars from hard alloys – 60-70;
– mandrel of grinding wheels – 10-12;
– drilling of wells – 10;
– Wire drawing – 10;
– cutting and grinding of parts and products from glass, ceramics, marble, drilling and finishing of carbide parts, processing of watch and jewelry – 10-12.