Requirements for the metallurgical process
Technological processes applied at operating enterprises of non-ferrous metallurgy in most cases far from completely meet modern requirements. A number of processes and their hardware design are obsolete and need replacing with new, more sophisticated ones.
Modern metallurgical processes for the production of non-ferrous metals and, especially, processes of the near future must satisfy at least the following requirements:
High specific productivity of used devices;
High labor productivity (output per employee);
High degree of extraction of all valuable components;
High degree of complex use of raw materials;
Minimal energy costs due to the use of external sources of thermal energy or electricity;
Maximum use of secondary energy resources;
Ensuring the possibility of comprehensive mechanization and automation of all operations;
The use of simple, cheap, durable and convenient in operation, start-up, adjustment and repair of equipment;
Providing the possibility of creating continuous, streamlined, fully automated production lines for the production of metals with partial or complete program control.
Products of metallurgical production
In addition to marketable products resulting from the processing of non-ferrous metal ores, non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises receive numerous wastes and intermediate products of metallurgical production. These include slags, dust, gases, agglomerates and cakes, cakes, sludges, solutions, etc.
Metals are the main type of production of metallurgical production. In non-ferrous metallurgy we distinguish between rough and refined metals. Ferrous metals are called, containing in their composition harmful impurities, impairing the consumer properties of the metal, as well as impurities of valuable satellite elements. Roughing metals must be cleaned of impurities – refining.
Slags are the second obligatory product of metallurgical processes leading to melting of processed materials. They are formed as a result of slagging of oxides of gangue and fluxes. In addition to the slag-forming components, the actual factory slag necessarily contains a certain amount of recoverable metals.
Steins are intermediate products of pyrometallurgical processing of copper, nickel and partially lead ores and concentrates. They are an alloy of sulfides of heavy non-ferrous metals (copper, nickel, zinc, lead, etc.) with iron sulphide, in which impurities are dissolved.
Gases and dust are also among the mandatory products of pyrometallurgical processes. As a rule, these two products are removed from the stoves together.
Solutions are the products of the leaching process, in which the dissolved substance is in a state of molecular disintegration, which makes them very stable systems that do not separate for an arbitrarily long standing.
Keki are solid powdery materials.
By the nature of education, there are two types of cakes:
1. Insoluble residues of the leach material.
2. Products (sediments) of cementation, chemical or hydrolytic deposition of dissolved metals in a free metallic state or in the form of insoluble chemical compounds.