Peculiarities of location of enterprises of ferrous metallurgy

The problems of the location of this sector are particularly complex due to the fact that the high level of development of the productive forces and the latest achievements of science and technology make it economically feasible to build the largest enterprises with multifaceted rear connections (mines, calcareous quarries, coke plants, etc.). Each of these features in one way or another affects the effectiveness of this industry, but the greatest importance, as a rule, belongs to the raw materials and fuel factors, since ferrous metallurgy is very material-intensive.

Large ferrous metallurgy in general can effectively develop only in areas that have natural prerequisites for this. Failure to comply with this requirement leads to a shortage of prepared ores and high-quality coking coal in individual enterprises. The efficiency of ferrous metallurgy is also affected by metal consumption. It was proximity to the largest metal-consuming centers in Russia that served as one of the main factors in the creation of metallurgy in the central and north-western regions in the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century.

The availability of water sources influences the location of metallurgical plants. In some cases, especially where there is a tense water balance, their role can become decisive.

Despite the current structural changes in industry caused by the chemicalization of production and the increasing use of light and non-ferrous metals, plastics and other chemical synthesis products, ferrous metals have not lost their role as the main constructional material in industry and transport. They are widely used in construction and other branches of the national economy. Their production remains one of the most important indicators of the industrial development of a country, reflecting its technical level.

Combines are the main type of ferrous metallurgy enterprises in most industrialized countries. Enterprises with a full cycle give over 9/10 pig iron, about 9/10 steel and rolled products. In addition, there are factories producing cast iron and steel, steel and rolled products (including pipe and metalware plants), as well as cast iron, steel and rolled products. Enterprises without cast iron smelting are referred to the so-called pig-iron metallurgy. A special group for technical and economic parameters are enterprises with electrothermal production of steel and ferroalloys.

Ferrous metallurgy with a full technological cycle is an important area-forming factor. In addition to the numerous industries that arise on the basis of the recycling of various kinds of waste during the smelting of cast iron and the coking of coal-heavy organic synthesis (benzene, anthracene, naphthalene, ammonia and their derivatives), production of building materials (cement, block products), tomato flour (in the redistribution of iron Ores with a high content of phosphorus), ferrous metallurgy attracts accompanying industries. Its most typical satellites are: thermal power engineering, primarily installations that are part of metallurgical plants and can operate on secondary fuel (excess blast furnace gas, coke, coke breeze); Metal-intensive mechanical engineering (metallurgical and mining equipment, heavy machine tools). The iron and steel industry forms around itself such powerful and diversely developed industrial complexes that arose in the Urals and in the Kuzbass.

Metallurgy of the full cycle, redistribution and “small” differ from each other in terms of placement. To place the first, raw materials and fuel are especially important, they account for 85-90% of all costs for smelting pig iron, including about 50% for coke and 35-40% for iron ore. On 1t of pig iron it is required 1,2-1,5t of coal (taking into account losses at enrichment and coking), 1.5t of iron ore, more than 0.5t of flux limestone and up to 30m3 of circulating water. This underlines the importance of the mutual transport-geographical position of raw and fuel bases, water supply sources and auxiliary materials.